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    Global Brain Institute, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels

    Collective Intelligence and its Implementation on the Web: Algorithms to Develop a Collective Mental Map

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    Collective intelligence is defined as the ability of a group to solve more problems than its individual members. It is argued that the obstacles created by individual cognitive limits and the difficulty of coordination can be overcome by using a collective mental map (CMM). A CMM is defined as an external memory with shared read/write access, that represents problem states, actions and preferences for actions. It can be formalized as a weighted, directed graph. The creation of a network of pheromone trails by ant colonies points us to some basic mechanisms of CMM development: averaging of individual preferences, amplification of weak links by positive feedback, and integration of specialised subnetworks through division of labor. Similar mechanisms can be used to transform the World-Wide Web into a CMM, by supplementing it with weighted links. Two types of algorithms are explored: 1) the co-occurrence of links in web pages or user selections can be used to compute a matrix of link strengths, thus generalizing the technique of &201C;collaborative filtering&201D;; 2) learning web rules extract information from a user&2018;s sequential path through the web in order to change link strengths and create new links. The resulting weighted web can be used to facilitate problem-solving by suggesting related links to the user, or, more powerfully, by supporting a software agent that discovers relevant documents through spreading activation.

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    Description

    Title : Collective Intelligence and its Implementation on the Web: Algorithms to Develop a Collective Mental Map
    Author(s) : Francis Heylighen
    Abstract : Collective intelligence is defined as the ability of a group to solve more problems than its individual members. It is argued that the obstacles created by individual cognitive limits and the difficulty of coordination can be overcome by using a collective mental map (CMM). A CMM is defined as an external memory with shared read/write access, that represents problem states, actions and preferences for actions. It can be formalized as a weighted, directed graph. The creation of a network of pheromone trails by ant colonies points us to some basic mechanisms of CMM development: averaging of individual preferences, amplification of weak links by positive feedback, and integration of specialised subnetworks through division of labor. Similar mechanisms can be used to transform the World-Wide Web into a CMM, by supplementing it with weighted links. Two types of algorithms are explored: 1) the co-occurrence of links in web pages or user selections can be used to compute a matrix of link strengths, thus generalizing the technique of &201C;collaborative filtering&201D;; 2) learning web rules extract information from a user&2018;s sequential path through the web in order to change link strengths and create new links. The resulting weighted web can be used to facilitate problem-solving by suggesting related links to the user, or, more powerfully, by supporting a software agent that discovers relevant documents through spreading activation.
    Keywords : collective intelligence, intelligent problem solving, problem solving, synthetic brains

    Subject : unspecified
    Area : Other
    Language : English
    Year : 1999

    Affiliations Global Brain Institute, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels
    Journal : Computational Mathematical Organization Theory
    Volume : 5
    Issue : 3
    Pages : 253-280
    Url : http://api.mendeley.com/research/collective-intelligence-and-its-implementation-on-the-web-algorithms-to-develop-a-collective-mental-map/

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    Francis's Peer Evaluation activity

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    Followed by 3

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