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    School of Environmental Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK

    Field observations of the ocean-atmosphere exchange of ammonia: Fundamental importance of temperature as revealed by a comparison of high and low latitudes

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    Simultaneous measurements of NH3 in the atmosphere and NH4 + in the ocean are presented from fieldwork spanning 10 years and 110 degrees of latitude, including the first such simultaneous measurements in the remote marine environment at >55N. At high latitudes, fluxes were almost exclusively from air to sea, in contradiction with previous lower-latitude studies, which have suggested that the open oceans are predominantly sources of ammonia to the atmosphere. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the direction and magnitude of the ocean-atmosphere NH3 exchange is highly dependent on water temperature. This temperature effect is sufficiently strong to outweigh the effects of variability in concentrations in seawater and atmosphere in many parts of the (open) ocean. This is highlighted in data from the Atlantic oligotrophic gyres, where fluxes were found to be predominantly out of the ocean despite extremely low dissolved ammonium concentrations in surface waters.

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    Description

    Title : Field observations of the ocean-atmosphere exchange of ammonia: Fundamental importance of temperature as revealed by a comparison of high and low latitudes
    Author(s) : Martin T. Johnson, Peter S. Liss, Thomas G. Bell, Timothy J. Lesworth, Alex R. Baker, Andrew J. Hind, Timothy D. Jickells, Karabi F. Biswas, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Stuart W. Gibb
    Abstract : Simultaneous measurements of NH3 in the atmosphere and NH4 + in the ocean are presented from fieldwork spanning 10 years and 110 degrees of latitude, including the first such simultaneous measurements in the remote marine environment at >55N. At high latitudes, fluxes were almost exclusively from air to sea, in contradiction with previous lower-latitude studies, which have suggested that the open oceans are predominantly sources of ammonia to the atmosphere. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the direction and magnitude of the ocean-atmosphere NH3 exchange is highly dependent on water temperature. This temperature effect is sufficiently strong to outweigh the effects of variability in concentrations in seawater and atmosphere in many parts of the (open) ocean. This is highlighted in data from the Atlantic oligotrophic gyres, where fluxes were found to be predominantly out of the ocean despite extremely low dissolved ammonium concentrations in surface waters.
    Subject : unspecified
    Area : Other
    Language : English
    Year : 2008

    Affiliations School of Environmental Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Journal : Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Volume : 22
    Issue : 1
    Pages : n/a - n/a
    Url : http://doi.wiley.com/10.1029/2007GB003039
    Doi : 10.1029/2007GB003039

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    Martin's Peer Evaluation activity

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    • Andrew Russell, Lecturer, Brunel University.
    • Jerome K Vanclay, Professor, Southern Cross University, European Forest Institute Mediterranean Office (EFIMED).
    • Thuy Nguyen, Student, Ph.D. Level, Silviculture Research Institute, Ha Noi, Vietnam, The University of Melbourne.

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